সুপ্রিয় গ্রন্থাগার পেশাজীবীবৃন্দ,

 

আমরা সবাই জানি বিশ্ব আজ কোভিড-১৯ নামক এক সংক্রামক ভাইরাসে আক্রান্ত যা ইতোমধ্যেই মহামারিতে রূপ নিয়েছে। এই মহামারির প্রভাব পৃথিবীর সকল দেশের সকল শ্রেণি-পেশার মানুষকে প্রভাবিত করেছে। এর প্রভাব পড়েছে গ্রন্থাগার পেশাজীবীদের ওপরও। পেশাজীবীদের কেউ কেউ করোনা পরবর্তী সময়ে সেবাপ্রদানকারী প্রতিষ্ঠান হিসেবে গ্রন্থাগারের স্বরূপ নিয়ে ভাবছেন, কেউবা অললাইন আলোচনার আয়োজন করছেন। সেখানে উঠে আসছে পরিবর্তিত পরিস্থিতিতে গ্রন্থাগারের সম্ভাব্য সমস্যা আর তার সমাধান।

 

এরই ধারাবাহিকতায় কলকাতা বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়ের গ্রন্থাগার ও তথ্যবিজ্ঞান বিভাগের অধ্যাপক এবং কলা অনুষদের ডিন ড. স্বপ্না ব্যানার্জি এবং চিত্তরঞ্জন ন্যাশনাল ক্যানসার ইন্সটিটিউট এর গ্রন্থাগারিক সন্ময় চক্রবর্তী করোনা বিষয়ক প্রচলিত শব্দগুলো সংকলন করে একটি পরিভাষাকোষ (Glossary) তৈরি করেছেন যা করোনা পরবর্তী সময়ে গ্রন্থাগারিকদের তথ্যসেবায় সহায়ক হবে। সম্পূর্ণ পরিভাষাকোষটি পাওয়া যাবে লাইব্রেরিয়ান ভায়েসের ওয়েবসাইটে। পরবর্তীতে পরিভাষা কোষটির একটি বাংলা সংস্করণ বের করার প্রয়াস থাকবে আমাদের।

A GLOSSARY OF TERMS RELATED TO CORONAVIRUS

Compiled by:

Swapna Banerjee

        Professor,

       Dept. of Library & Information Science

      University of Calcutta, India

Sanmoy Chakravarty

             CNCRI, Kolkata, India

             Librarian,

Active cases:  

 

It is the systematic identification  of number of infectants , infected with Corona virus , except those cases of death and recovery. Active case detection or search means that the health staff reach out to the community and systematically screen the population to find cases of COVID 19.

 

Aggressive testing:  

 

Forceful, severe, intensive  testing of  persons in an epidemic or pandemic. Experts are of the opinion that aggressive testing was the only way to identify, isolate and treat the patients of  COVID 19 .

 

Animal-human interface:

 

A point where both domestic and wild animals  and humans meet – in this interface, animal diseases can potentially pass to humans in some probable places such as a zoo, farm or animal market.

 

Apex: 

 

Apex variously means “the tip, point, vertex, summit, climax, peak.” In relation to COVID-19, apex is used to refer to the highest number of cases reached in a state or country, after which the rate of infection begins to slow.

 

Asymptomatic:  

 

Asymptomatic means “showing no evidence of disease.” This is probably the most dangerous of this infection. A person may not show any evidence of this disease, but he may be infected with COVID-19. So being asymptomatic doesn’t mean that people aren’t infected with COVID-19. Research from some front shows that these asymptomatic carriers may be the main agents in spread of this pandemic.

 

Buffer zone:

 

It means a zone which is established to protect the health status of persons in a country. In case of this pandemic, the buffer zone was fixed to be an additional 5kms. radius  from the containment zone in many countries.

 

Carrier:

 

A person or animal who transmits a disease to others, whether suffering from it themselves or not – People who are asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic may be also carriers and thus transmit the disease.

 

Carry:

 

It means to be infected with the disease and also has the potential  to transmit it to others, whether symptomatic or asymptomatic – Some people may carry coronavirus without knowing it.

 

Case fatality rate:

 

It is the proportion of deaths from a certain disease compared to the total number of people diagnosed with the disease for a specific period of time. It represents the measurement of the severity of the disease. This is measured in case of outbreaks of acute infections.

 

CDC:

 

CDC stands for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. It is a US federal agency based in Atlanta, Georgia. According to its mission statement, the CDC: … works 24/7 to protect America from health, safety and security threats, both foreign and in the U.S. It increases the health security of USA. Whether diseases start at home or abroad, are chronic or acute, curable or preventable, human error or deliberate attack, CDC fights disease and supports communities and citizens to do the same. It is a data-driven , and science based organization which is committed to protection of the health of the public in USA. The statistics and the protective measures and precautions suggested by CDC are followed by the US Department of Health and Human services.

 

Chloroquine: 

 

Chloroquine is a medicine used to treat malaria. It is being explored and tested as a possible treatment for the novel coronavirus. The chemical formula of chloroquine, a synthetic substance, is c18h26cln3. Chloroquine is sometimes abbreviated as CQ. The brand name of Chloroquine is Aralen. A derivative of chloroquine is hydroxychloroquine.  Chloroquine has proven effective in treating malaria, and also SARS, a disease caused by a coronavirus closely related to the one that causes COVID-19. Therefore   chloroquine is being tried out as a treatment for COVID-19. Other drugs being considered for COVID-19 are remdesivir (GS-5734) and lopinavir/ritonavir.

 

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD):

 

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD, is a group of lung diseases that cause airflow blockage and extreme breathing problems to the point of breathlessness. The lungs are damaged by COPD and this damage is irreversible. People who have COPD are very much likely to experience serious complications once they are infected by COVID-19.

 

Cluster containment:

 

A buffer zone forming a boundary of  neighboring districts/urban zone is identified,  in the cluster containment plan. In this plan areas are identified where 3 or more positive patients are found. A 3 km area around the patient’s home is surveyed and the cluster containment area is delineated. The cluster containment strategy is to restrict the disease within a defined geographic area by early detection of cases, breaking the chain of transmission and thus preventing its spread to new areas.

 

Cluster mapping:

 

Cluster mapping describes the quantitative measurement of the presence of clusters across regions within a country or group of countries. It is important to map the geographical pattern of rare diseases . Geographical clustering of disease related to COVID-19 is very important.

 

Communicable: 

 

Communicable means “capable of being easily communicated (spread) or transmitted.” COVID-19 is a communicable disease. Communicable diseases spread from one person to another through various ways, like droplets, insect transmission, contact with blood and also body fluids etc. These diseases are usually caused by bacteria, virus, parasites or fungi, in fact, all types of microorganisms.

 

Community medicine:

 

It is applied to the healthy group of people, affecting large number of populations. The main purpose of community medicine is prevention of diseases and promotion of health.

 

Community spread:

 

Community spread is “the spread of a contagious disease within a community.”  The spread of a contagious disease may be to individuals in a particular geographic location who have no known contact with other infected individuals, or who have not recently traveled to an area where the disease has any documented cases. In case of COVID 19 , community spread can be stopped by social distancing, the practice of avoiding public areas and crowded places, and also maintaining a distance from other persons. Also frequent hand washing, covering coughs and sneezes and also frequently cleaning high touch surfaces can help in combating community spread. Once community spread starts in a country, it is very difficult to protect the people from it.

 

Comorbidity:

 

Comorbidity is the simultaneous coexistence of multiple disorders alongside a primary disorder. These can occur at the same time or one after another. Common comorbid conditions are depression, anxiety, schizophrenia and addiction. In children, we often see comorbid conditions of ADHD, learning disabilities and others.

 

Contact tracing: 

 

Contact tracing is the practice to identify and monitor individuals who may have had contact with an infectious person so that the control of  the spread of a communicable disease can be made. By insisting on strict contact tracing as soon as someone is potentially infected, the Govt. can  manage to control the spread of the disease. In public health, contact tracing is the process of identification of persons who may have come into contact with an infected person and subsequent collection of further information about these contacts. Contact tracing has got three steps-contact identification, contact listing and contact follow up. To catch carriers early, every person who comes in contact with a known patient must be traced.

 

Contact tracer:

 

These are persons who interviews each person with a confirmed case of COVID 19.  These persons can thus through all the data collected, can easily find out who others might have already acquired this virus from the infected person , or have been exposed.  Some answers  the contact tracers should know are that who the persons with confirmed cases have met or talked with recently ; who have they sat near ; or whether they have been to a congested area or a big event.

 

Contagious:

 

Contagious means transmissible by direct or indirect contact with an infected person, and contagious diseases are caused by bacteria and viruses. The transmission may be by physical contact, by casual contact with their secretions, or through airborne route.

 

Containment zone:

 

The ‘contaminated’ area is a specifically selected area and is called the containment zone. Every confirmed case is selected , and is demarcated , and the objective is to embark the area so as to prevent the spread of the infection . Therefore this zone is very sensitive.  There are many restrictions imposed in the containment zone. The containment zone means that the area is sealed, so that no one is allowed to enter or exit from that area.

 

Contamination:

 

The act of contaminating, or of making something impure or hazardous. The word comes from the Latin word ‘contaminat ‘, which means made impure. Many diseases are contaminated, and these are very injurious for human beings.

 

Coronavirus:

 

Single-stranded RNA viruses that have a lipid envelope studded with club-shaped projections; infect birds and many mammals including humans, and include the causative agents of MERS, SARS, and COVID-19. Coronaviruses can cause a variety of illnesses in animals, but in people coronaviruses cause one-third of common colds and sometimes respiratory infections in premature infants. The word was introduced by a group of virologists as a short article “Coronaviruses” in the “News and Views” section of Nature (vol. 220, no. 5168, November 16, 1968, p. 650): “…avian infectious bronchitis virus has a characteristic electron microscopic appearance resembling, but distinct from, that of myxoviruses. Particles are more or less rounded in profile…there is also a characteristic ‘fringe’ of projections 200 Å long, which are rounded or petal shaped, rather than sharp or pointed, as in the myxoviruses. This appearance, recalling the solar corona, is shared by mouse hepatitis virus….In the opinion of the eight virologists, these viruses are members of a previously unrecognized group which they suggest should be called the coronaviruses, to recall the characteristic appearance by which these viruses are identified in the electron microscope.” The entire family of coronaviruses is called Coronaviridae and some of them also cause minor diseases, such as common cold.

 

COVID 19:

 

This is a new type of coronavirus. It was detected in China in 2019 with symptoms such as fever, cough and difficulty in breathing. This virus has the extraordinary capacity  to mutate, and therefore it is becoming very difficult to control the proliferation of this virus.

 

Crisis management:

 

Measure to resolve an emergency situation.  Crisis management may include a response to an incident involving a weapon of mass destruction, special improvised explosive device, or a hostage crisis that is beyond the capability of the common people or local Government..

 

Death rate:

 

It is the ratio between deaths and individuals  in a specified population and time.

 

Digital future:

 

This means that all types of communications, businesses, learning and teaching, operating digitally. The Coronavirus pandemic has pointed out that perhaps all the above mentioned activities will be operated digitally in the future. These types of operation has its advantages and disadvantages.  Social distancing is the rule in this pandemic, and therefore digital future is inevitable in this case.

 

Disease control:

 

By disease control it is  meant reducing the number of new infections, the number of people currently infected, and the number of people who become sick or die from a disease in local settings. It also means reduction in the incidence, prevalence, morbidity or mortality of an infectious disease.

 

Disinfection:

 

The process of cleaning or inactivating harmful bacteria, virus and other microorganisms , especially with a chemical, or with heat, ultraviolet light, ultrasonic waves or radiation in order to destroy germs. Disinfectant is an agent that frees from infection , and it is especially a chemical that destroys harmful bacteria and virus or any types of microorganisms.

 

Droplets:  

 

A drop, like the particle of moisture  expelled when people cough or sneeze, and which can spread diseases like COVID-19.  Health care personnel should wear  protective clothing to guard against the disease carried in droplets when infected people sneeze or cough.

 

Emotional stress:

 

Emotional stress is the condition created when a person feels that he cannot handle a situation or thinks in a negative way about the past, present or future. This stress causes emotional distress and pain to the sufferer. Emotional stress can come from the loss of near and dear ones, from the insecured future related to financial crisis, or due to fear of disease or death.

 

Endemic:

 

This is natural to or the characteristic of a particular place, native or people. It may be a disease or a condition, regularly found and very common among a particular group or in a particular area. For an infection that depends on person to person transmission to be endemic, each person who becomes infected with the disease must pass it on to one other person on average. Covid 19 has become  endemic in many regions of the world.

 

Epidemiology: 

 

Epidemiology is the branch of medicine dealing with the incidence, distribution and possible control of diseases and other factors related to health. The main objectives of epidemiology is to identify the factors which are related to the occurrence of disease. It is the method used to find the causes of health outcomes and the diseases in populations. An epidemiologist is a person who studies or is an expert in epidemiology.

 

Epistemonikos:

 

It was created in 2009 at Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile. This database allows the researchers to search evidence based medical literature by using a structured problem, intervention, comparison, questions etc. to help in clinical decision making. It offers simple and advanced searches. Since it supports many languages, so it is user friendly globally.

 

Exponential:  

 

This word is used as an impressive adjective to mean something which is happening really very fast and getting faster.    When a disease, such as COVID-19, spreads exponentially, that generally means the number of cases of infection increasing steadily, but rapidly. Without containment, such exponential spread results in a large number of infections even when an area has a small number of cases to begin with, for example, say the number of cases of a disease doubles every day and you start with one case. The next day there will be two cases, the day after four cases, the following day eight cases, and so on. It does not take long to reach high numbers of cases: by two weeks, you already have over 16,000 cases. Exponential growth means that the amount of new cases over a given time period is proportional to the number of cases already present.

 

Face shields:

 

It is an item of personal protective equipment , whose purpose is to protect the wearer’s face from hazards such as infectious materials. A mask  that protects the mucous membranes of the eyes, nose, and mouth during patient-care procedures and activities that carry the risk of generating splashes of droplets, blood, body fluids, excretions, or secretions.

 

Fake news:

 

Fake news is a form of news consisting of completely fabricated stories, explicit or deliberate lies, misinterpretations, and hoaxes.   The main characteristics of fake news is that one can’t easily verify its claims, and fake news usually appeals to emotions. Fake news generally comes from fake sites. To avoid fake news, it is necessary to judge the credibility of information that floods people’s smart phones, tablets or computers. Assessing quality of the content is very important to be cautious of fake news. During the COVID pandemic, there was a lot of fake news in the social media.

 

Flattening the curve: 

 

“Flattening the curve”  means slowing down the rate at which the disease is spreading. It also means controlling the transmission of the disease. It can only be done by taking necessary precautions, practicing hand hygiene and maintaining social distancing in case of this pandemic.

 

Fomite:

 

A fomite is any inanimate object that, when contaminated with or exposed to infectious agents (such as pathogenic bacteria, viruses or fungi), can transfer disease to a new host. For humans, skin cells, hair, clothing, and bedding are common hospital fomites.  In the hospital, fomites include patient care items and also environmental surfaces .

 

Food and Drug Administration (FDA):

 

Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services whose principal purpose is to protect the public health by ensuring the safety, efficacy and security of human drugs, biological products and medical devices.

 

Furlough: 

 

A furlough is  usually temporary layoff from work. During the coronavirus outbreak, many workers were furloughed, as businesses conducting non-essential activities were closed. This was done to prevent the spread of the disease by banning large gatherings as a form of social distancing. In this pandemic, many businesses have responded to this crisis by placing their staff on unpaid leave, i.e. furlough. Furloughed staff remain on their employer’s payroll, ready to start again once the economy turns back to normal.

 

Germophobia:

 

This is a pathological fear of contamination and germs. Germs , here refers broadly to any type of microorganism that causes disease, for e.g. bacteria, viruses or parasites. The symptoms of this phobia are mainly terrific terror or fear of the germs; anxiety, tension, worries or nervousness related to the exposure of germs, or feeling of powerlessness to control the fear of germs.  Most of the people at the time  of COVID 19 are all having this fear.

 

 Gloves:

 

A covering for the hand having separate sections for each of the fingers and the thumb and often extending part way up the arm. In the case of combating this virus, the use of gloves  made of latex, vinyl, nitrile or other synthetic materials is recommended.  Gloves should be removed and also discarded after the care of the patients.

 

 Gowns:

 

Gowns are examples of personal protective equipment used in health care settings. They are used to protect the wearer from the spread of infection or illness if the wearer comes in contact with potentially infectious liquid and solid material.  Isolation gowns can be made of synthetic materials , or are reusable ,  and could be made of washable cloth. After performing the patient care, the gown must be removed and placed in appropriate container for disinfection.

 

Hand hygiene:

 

It is one of the most important steps  to prevent and control the spread of disease in health care facilities. It involves washing the hands of a person very carefully and making it germ free. It is a simple procedure, but its implementation is complex.

 

Hand sanitizer:

 

Hand sanitizer is a liquid or gel generally used to decrease infectious agents in the hands. Formulations of the alcohol-based type are preferable to hand washing with soap and water in most situations in the healthcare setting in case of COVID 19 attack.

Hand washing

 

Hand washing  is the act of cleaning one’s hands with or without the use of water or another liquid, or with the use of soap for the purpose of removing soil, dirt, and/or microorganisms. The main medical purpose of washing hands is to cleanse the hands to get rid of pathogens (bacteria, viruses, or other microorganisms that can cause disease) and chemicals which can cause harm or diseases.

 

Health crisis:

 

A health crisis or public health crisis is a difficult situation or complex health system that affects humans in one or more geographic areas, from a particular locality to encompass the entire planet. Health crises generally have significant impacts on community health, loss of life, and on the economy.

 

Herd immunity:

 

an indirect protection from a disease resulting from a large percentage of the population gaining immunity (either through vaccination or through recovering from the disease) . In herd immunity enough people can’t get the disease. When most people become immune to an infectious disease, it cannot jump to the remaining uninfected people. The whole ‘herd’ becomes immune. 60-85%  people make a herd immune in case of Covid-19. Herd immunity proponents say the high risk groups could be isolated. This virus is unlike the seasonal flu because there is currently no vaccine or herd immunity. Until  there is a vaccine, the concept of herd immunity as  a preventive strategy for COVID-19 is wrong.

 

Home quarantine:

 

A condition, period of time in which a person who actually have the virus or suspect they may be infected and these people who have been infected with the virus may be asked to stay at home if they have no symptoms or are only mildly ill. It’s important to call health provider, in any case, if they develop symptoms. In home quarantine, persons are supposed to stay in a well ventilated single room , preferably with an attached toilet. If another family member has to stay in the same room, a distance of  at least 1 mtr. should be maintained with the person.  Apart from this, movement within the house is to be restricted. Hands to be washed frequently with soap water or with hand sanitizer. A surgical mask is to be worn all the times, and this mask is to be changed every 6-8 hours. Visitors are not to be allowed.  The period of home quarantine is for 14 days from contact with a confirmed case.

 

Hotspot:

 

A small public place with a relatively highly affected persons of this virus. The area is earmarked based on probability of high degree of spread. The people are not allowed to enter or exit from a hotspot area. The Govt. is supposed to do sanitation of these hotspot areas. Hotspots change based on the inputs and data of spread of virus.

 

Hydroxychloroquine:

 

Hydroxychloroquine is classified as an anti-malarial drug. It is similar to chloroquine (Aralen) and is useful in treating several forms of malaria as well as lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis.  Hydroxychloroquine is effective against the malarial parasites Plasmodium vivax, P. malariae, P. ovale, and susceptible strains of P. falciparum. Hydroxychloroquine prevents inflammation caused by lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. The FDA approved hydroxychloroquine in April, 1955. However the reasons for its hitting the headlines now are because of its alleged effectiveness in covid 19 treatment.

 

Immunocompromised:

 

Immunocompromised means having an impaired or compromised immune response; also referred to as immune-compromised or immunodeficient. People who are immunocompromised are weak, and therefore have less ability to fight infections. If one is immunocompromised, he is at a higher risk of coronavirus attack.

 

Incubation period:

 

Incubation period refers to the time period required for the virus to develop symptoms in the body. In simpler terms, it is the time period between contracting a virus and emergence of its symptoms. The incubation period of COVID-19 is somewhere between 2-14 days. It is the time from a person’s first exposure to a disease to the time when symptoms develop. When doctors know the incubation period, they will know how long to keep people in quarantine.

 

Index case:

 

An index case is the first documented case of an infectious disease or genetically transmitted condition or mutation in a population, region, or family.  It may also, however, refer to an individual who has a disease, condition, or mutation that is the first one identified in a population. The affected person is the index patient. A related term is patient zero, “a person identified as the first to become infected with an illness or disease in an outbreak.” Patient zero is especially used to refer to a person documented as being the first known case of a communicable disease in a particular population or region.

 

Infection:

 

It means the attack, invasion, and also multiplication of any type of microorganisms such as bacteria, virus and also parasites that are not usually present within the body. An infection may cause no symptoms , or it may cause symptoms. The infectious agent may have originated from air, water, food or any contaminated equipment.

 

Infectious:

 

describing a disease that is communicable by infection, and can be transmitted through the environment; describing a human or animal capable of spreading an infection.  Strictly speaking, a contagious disease is transmitted by physical contact, and an infectious disease is transmitted via micro-organisms in the air or water. But in practice there is little or no difference in meaning between contagious and infectious when related to disease.

 

Infectious:

 

Infectious is “producing or capable of producing infection” and “containing pathogenic agents which may be transmitted.” Infectious disease is caused by bacteria and viruses. These types of diseases are likely to spread in a rapid manner .

 

Infodemic:

 

When an excessive amount of information concerning a problem occurs, such that the solution is made more difficult, that situation is called infodemic. It originates  from information and epidemic. In this time of pandemic, the huge amount of misinformation, disinformation and rumours make it a problem to extract the correct news about this pandemic. Infodemics hamper an effective public health response , thereby creating confusion among people.

 

Information hygiene:

 

This is a new skill.  It means careful evaluation of the information that one is consuming and disseminating. Any misinformation is flooding the internet and experts are calling on the public to practice “information hygiene”. Information hygiene involves information security. People are required to filter the pure information and stop consuming each and every kind of information that comes in their way. In this way they will be able to maintain information hygiene.

 

Intensive care unit:

 

A section of a hospital where special medical equipment and services are provided for patients who are seriously injured or ill.  In case of patients affected with COVID-19,  they are mostly admitted to this unit in case of acute synptoms. The common equipments here includes mechanical ventilators to help in breathing through an endotracheal tube, cardiac monitors to monitor cardiac condition, equipment for constant monitoring of body functions etc.

 

Isolate:

 

keep an infected person away from healthy people – The main action in case of COVID 19 patients is to  isolate them from the non affected ones.

 

Isolation:

 

Isolation is the state of being alone or away from others and social separation of a person who has or is suspected of having a contagious disease. This is done to prevent the spread of infection among the common people.

 

Living history:

 

Any of various activities involving the re-enactment of historical events or the recreation of living conditions of the past. One day soon the images of how we are living through this pandemic will be history. So we are now part of this living history.

 

Lockdown:

 

An emergency measure or condition in which people are temporarily prevented from entering or leaving a restricted area or building (such as a school) during a threat of danger. In case of this pandemic, various countries fixed their lockdown timings according to their requirements.  Lockdown enables to restrict movement and thereby to stop transmission . The different measures taken in lockdown are banning on people from stepping out of their homes, closure of commercial and private establishments, suspension of all educational training and research institutions , suspension of all non essential public and private transport and also prohibition of all social, political, sports, entertainment , academic , cultural or religious activities.

 

Martial law:

 

The law administered by military forces that is invoked by a government in an emergency when the civilian law enforcement agencies are unable to maintain public order and safety. In case of a pandemic, if the Government feels that the public can’t be controlled otherwise, it can impose martial law for the betterment of the situation.

 

Mask:

 

A covering for the face, as a bandage, an apparatus for administering anesthesia or oxygen, or a cloth that prevents droplets from the mouth and nose from spreading in the air.. It may be also defined as a piece of fibre or cloth that fits over the nose and mouth to protect other people from the wearer’s germs and/or the wearer from germs in the air. It has been made mandatory by most of the countries of the world that their citizens wear masks in the outbreak of this pandemic.

 

Medical audit:

 

It is the systematic and critical analysis of the quality of medical care , which includes the procedures used for diagnosis and treatment, the use of the resources etc.  The resulting outcome is beneficial for quality of life for the patient.

 

Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS):

 

MERS-CoV is a virus which infects humans, bats and camels.  Studies have shown that humans are infected through direct or indirect contact with infected animals. This was first reported in Saudi Arabia in 2012, and has since spread to several other countries. Most people affected with this disease develop severe respiratory illness, including fever, cough and shortness of breath.

 

Mortality rate:

 

It is the measure of the frequency of occurrence of death in a defined population during a specified interval. The cause specific mortality rate is the mortality rate due to a specific cause for a population.

 

Mitigation:

 

Disease mitigation are measures taken to slow the spread of infection. Quarantine, isolation, and social distancing are forms of mitigation. It means  reducing the risk of loss from the occurrence of any undesirable event. It is the effort to reduce loss of life and property by lessening the impact of disasters.

 

N95 mask:

 

An N95 respirator is a respiratory protective device designed to achieve a very close facial fit and very efficient filtration of airborne particles. The ‘N95’ designation means that when subjected to careful testing, the respirator blocks at least 95 percent of very small (0.3 micron) test particles.

 

Noninvasive Positive-Pressure Ventilation (NIPPV):

 

NIPPV is the delivery of mechanical ventilation to the patients with respiratory failure without the requirement of an artificial airway. It is the use of breathing support  through a face mask, nasal mask or a helmet. Cardiorespiratory arrest are met with  through this process.

 

Novel Coronavirus (Covid 19):

 

Covid 19 – was first identified in Wuhan, China  in December 2019.  The symptoms of the disease caused by this virus were a mild to severe respiratory illness,  characterized especially by fever, cough, and shortness of breath and which may progress to pneumonia and respiratory failure. The name is an odd sort of acronym, in so far as it is formed from portions of two distinct words (COronaVIrus & Disease) .

 

It was rapidly shown to be caused by a novel coronavirus that is structurally related to the virus that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). As in two preceding instances of emergence of coronavirus disease in the past 18 years — SARS (2002 and 2003) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) (2012 to the present) — the Covid-19 outbreak has posed critical challenges for the public health, research, and medical communities.

 

Outbreak:

 

An outbreak is an unexpected rise in the occurrence of a disease. Outbreak and epidemic are nearly the same, but outbreak is limited to a particular geographic area. An outbreak can last for days or years. It may stay in one area or extend more widely. COVID-19 has been identified as the cause of an outbreak of respiratory illness in Wuhan, China.

 

Pandemic:

 

According to WHO, a pandemic is the worldwide spread of a new disease. Pandemic is an outbreak of a disease that happens over a broad geographic area , i.e. it spreads across countries or continents, and takes more lives than an epidemic, and damage an exceptionally high proportion of the people. The number of lives lost in a pandemic depends on many factors like how many people are infected, the virulence of the virus, the vulnerability of certain groups of people, and the prevention efforts and how effective they are.

 

Pathogen:

 

a micro-organism or germ such as a bacterium or virus that can cause disease. Washing one’s hands frequently helps one to avoid the pathogens. A pathogen needs to thrive and survive is a host. Once the pathogen sets itself up in a host’s body, it manages to avoid the body’s immune responses and uses the body’s resources to replicate before it’s exit and spreading to a new host. Pathogens can be transmitted through skin contact, bodily fluids, airborne particles, contact with faeces, and also touching a surface touched by an infected person. COVID 19 virus is a pathogen.

 

Patient zero:

 

Patient zero refers to the person who is identified as the first person infected with a communicable disease during an outbreak. Authorities usually try to determine who patient zero was in any given outbreak as this can help answer important questions about how, when and why it started. There is confusion still now as to who was patient zero in this pandemic.

 

PCR test:

 

test that detects viral particles in blood or other body fluids. (PCR = polymerase chain reaction) – The PCR test is one of the tools that doctors use to diagnose certain coronavirus diseases. This is a method widely used in molecular biology to fast make numerous copies of some specific DNA sample. These are mainly used to directly detect whether an antigen is present or not .

 

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) –

 

Personal protective equipment is safety clothing, helmets, goggles, or other garments designed to protect the wearer’s body from contamination. The hazards addressed by protective equipment include physical, electrical, heat, chemicals, biohazards, and airborne particulate matter. These also include a long sleeve impervious gown, a surgical mask, a N95 mask, non sterile gloves and also goggles or face shields. Personal eye glasses are not adequate eye protection.

 

Person-to-person:

 

describing the spread of a disease from one person to another, typically through touch, including shaking hands, kissing, sexual intercourse etc. Any infectious disease is usually transmitted through direct person to person contact.  In January an infected American woman returning home from China transmitted the virus to her husband, marking the first known example of person-to-person spread of the virus in the USA.

 

Physical distancing:

 

Physical distancing is an alternative term for social distancing. Its use is being increasingly encouraged by some health professionals because the term emphasizes the importance of maintaining physical distance between people to help stop the spread of the disease. It means some measures taken to prevent the spread of the infectious disease by maintaining a physical distance between people and also by reducing the number of times people come into close contact with each other. This technique has proven to be one of the very efficient ways to minimize the risk of the infection during an epidemic or pandemic. Most of the countries have taken this measure to combat the attack of COVID 19. The term also emphasizes that people should still socialize using digital technology and social media while they are separated physically.

 

Plasma therapy:

 

This method is being looked at the most suitable for treating COVID 19 patients. This treatment uses blood donated by recovered patients to introduce antibodies to those undergoing treatment. The concept of this lies in the fact that the recovered patient’s antibodies , if once ingested into somebody undergoing treatment, will begin to target and fight the virus in the second patient. Many countries are trying this treatment to fight this pandemic.

 

Point of care molecular diagnostics assage:

 

It is very critical in detecting infectious agents, in determining a patient’s ability to metabolize a drug , and in minimizing residual disase. This includes analyzers and assays which enable healthcare professionals in detecting the diseases through molecular technologies in point-of-care settings.

 

Precautions:

 

A measure taken in advance to prevent something threatening, unpleasant, or inconvenient from occurrence in respect to health particularly. One can reduce the chances of being infected or spreading COVID 19 by taking some simple precautions. The precautions are being regularly announced by the Govt. of various countries and also by WHO.

 

Presumptive cases:

 

These relates to persons with at least one respiratory specimen that tested positive for the virus by a local testing laboratory, but those results are still awaiting confirmation at a CDC lab in the USA.

 

Public health:

 

The health of the people as an entire, especially as the subject of government rule and support. It relates to improving quality of life through the efforts of the organizations, Govt., society, communities and also individuals. It is the science of protecting the health and also improving the health of people and their communities. This is achieved by promoting healthy lifestyles, researching on the disease, and also detecting, preventing and responding to the infectious diseases.

 

Quarantine:

 

A condition, period of time, or place in which a person, animal, plant, vehicle, or amount of material suspected of carrying an infectious agent is kept in confinement or isolated in an effort to prevent disease from spreading. People in quarantine are asked to remain at home or another location to prevent further spread of the disease and also to be carefully monitored for the disease. It is meant for people who don’t have symptoms but were exposed to the infection. To be in quarantine means he or she is kept away from others so that they don’t unknowingly infect others.

 

Real time PCR test:

 

This term was first used more than 30 years ago in a paper describing a novel enzymatic amplification of DNA. This is one of the most accurate laboratory methods for detecting , tracking and studying the coronavirus. It is a nuclear derived method for detection of the presence of specific genetic material from any type of pathogen, including virus. To detect the virus by this method, scientists must convert the RNA to DNA, the process being called reverse transcription. This is to be done because only DNA can be copied. This method is comparatively faster than other methods, and leads to less errors.

 

Respirator:

 

A respirator is a masklike device, usually of gauze, worn over the mouth (or nose and mouth) to prevent the inhalation of noxious substances or the like. Respirators are also called personal respiratory protective devices in case of COVID 19. To help protect them from COVID-19, health professionals wear respirators to filter out virus particles as they breathe in, so they don’t get infected and can help patients. For these professionals, the CDC specifically recommends using what are called N95 respirators, which fit more tightly around the nose and mouth than medical or surgical masks. N95 respirators are certified by the National Institute for Occupational Health and Safety , based in the USA.

 

Sanitizing:

 

Sanitizing is defined as cleaning something to make it free of bacteria or virus or disease causing elements. to free from dirt, germs, etc., as by cleaning or sterilizing, and also  to make less offensive by eliminating anything unhealthy, offensive etc. In case of protection against COVID 19, sanitizers should be chosen which contains between 60-95% alcohol. Alcohol attacks and destroys the envelope protein that surrounds the coronavirus.

 

SARI:

 

This stands for Severe Acute Respiratory Infection. This is taken into consideration when history of fever becomes higher than 38degree centigrade, and there is cough for over 10 days. Then hospitalization is required, and admission in ICU  with ventilator support is essential. COVID 19 virus cause this symptom in the patients in acute cases.

 

Screening:

 

Screening is examining a person to see if they have a disease. Screening tests are therefore defined as proactive, and not reactive. The purpose of screening is early detection , helping to reduce the risk of disease. This involves a series of questions asked to determine a person’s risk for COVID 19.  This frequently involves taking their temperature, asking about symptoms, and asking about potential exposures to infected people.

 

Screening test:

 

A screening test is done to detect potential health disorders or diseases in people who do not have any symptoms of disease. The goal is early detection and surveillance, to reduce the risk of disease, or to detect it early enough to treat it most effectively. Screening tests are not considered diagnostic, but are used to identify a subset of the population who should have additional testing to determine the presence or absence of disease. An ideal screening test is very sensitive, i.e. has high probability of detecting disease, and also extremely specific, i.e. high probability that those without the disease will screen negative.

 

Self-isolation:

 

isolating oneself; putting oneself in quarantine, away from other people. This means protecting others and slowing down the spread of the disease. In case of COVID affected patients, self isolation is recommended for people who are waiting for a COVID 19 test result, people who are identified as being in close contact of someone with coronavirus, returning travelers etc. Self isolation means staying at home, not going to any public places, not using public transport, avoiding visitors at home, etc.

 

Self-monitoring:

 

It means checking oneself for COVID 19 symptoms. If anybody notice any symptoms, one should self isolate and seek advice from a healthcare provider to determine whether one needs medical treatment.

 

Self-quarantine:

 

To refrain from any contact with other individuals for a period of time (such as two weeks) during the outbreak of a contagious disease usually by remaining in one’s home and limiting contact with family members. The difference between self quarantine and self isolation is that while both limit one’s movements, self quarantine is what is expected of people to do because they are at higher risk of coming into contact with a confirmed case.

 

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS):

 

SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) – virus was identified in 2003. SARS-CoV is thought to be an animal virus from an as-yet-uncertain animal reservoir, perhaps bats, that spread to other animals (civet cats) and first infected humans in the Guangdong province of southern China in 2002.

 

Shelter in place:

 

In general, shelter in place is an order to stay in a safe place indoors due to an emergency (e.g., extreme weather, chemical hazard) until given permission by authorities to evacuate. The specifics of a shelter-in-place order varies depending on the emergency. During the coronavirus outbreak, shelter in place refers to orders for people to stay at home and not leave unless absolutely necessary. This is necessary to slow the rate of spread of the disease.

 

Social awareness:

 

Social awareness is consciousness which is shared by individuals within a society. It is also the ability to comprehend and appropriately react to the problems of society. Social awareness means being aware of our immediate environment, what’s around us etc. Social awareness is the intermingling of certain concepts like social sensitivity, social insight and social communication. Social Awareness is the ability to take the view of and empathize with others from diverse backgrounds and cultures, to understand social and ethical norms for behavior, and to recognize family, school, and community resources and supports.

 

Social distancing:

 

Social distancing is defined as the practice of minimizing in-person social and physical contact with other people and avoiding public spaces during an epidemic or pandemic to slow down the spread of a contagious illness in a community. This practice eventually leads to decrease in spread, morbidity and also death due to the disease. It is also called physical distancing. To practice it, it is recommended to keep at least 6 feet from other people . It is also advised not to gather in groups and to stay out of crowded places and to avoid mass gatherings. Because COVID 19 spreads from person to person, reducing the ways people come in close contact with each other is essential. Therefore it is advised to practice social distancing.

 

Spike:

 

The structure of coronavirus shows that it is covered with spikes. They branch out from the body of the virus like jewels in a crown, so the name Coronavirus. These spikes are important biologically. They slide accurately into the matching sites of receptors found on the cells lining our lungs. This connection allows the virus to slip into the cell. Once they enter, they can make thousands of copies of itself, and that is the start of the infection. 

 

Sterile:

 

Sterile is something totally clean and free from virus or any other living microorganisms that is not able to reproduce. In case of infection through coronavirus, sterile medical equipment are absolutely necessary.  The houses, handles of doors, and other essential things are also to be made sterile. Sterility and is maintenance, together with the prevention of cross infection are at the top of any list of critical factors in patient care.

 

Super-spreader:

 

A person infected with a bacteria virus, or other microorganism who transmits it to an unusually large number of other people. These people unknowingly become the super spreader. A supers spreader can completely change the trajectory of a pandemic in a country. Super spreaders spread a virus more dangerously than the average person.

 

Symptom:

 

Symptom is a feature , which may be physical or mental,  that arises from and accompanies a particular disease or disorder and serves as an indication of it. It is a departure from normal function or feeling which is apparent to a patient.  Major symptoms of COVID-19 include fever, dry cough, fatigue, and difficulty in breathing. Some people may experience aches and pains, nasal congestion, runny nose, sore throat or diarrhoea. On an average it takes 5-6 days from when someone is infected with the virus for symptoms to show, but it may take upto 14 days.

 

Symptomatic:

 

showing symptoms of a particular disease – Anyone who is symptomatic is advised to phone a doctor and get tested in case of coronavirus attack. When someone has the common symptoms associated with a disease or condition, they are  considered symptomatic.

 

Test negative/ test positive:

 

If one  takes a test for an infection for COVID-19 by a viral test, and he or she  tests negative, that means he does not have the infection. Of course that does not mean that he will not get sick. The test result means that he did not have COVID-19 at the time of testing. If one tests positive, that means he  has the infection.

 

Transmission:

 

transfer of a disease from animal to human or from human to human. The term transmission also refers to the transmission of microorganisms from one infected individual to another uninfected person.  The coronavirus transmission has four stages of transmission. The word comes from the Latin word transmissio, which means “sending over across, passage. Transmission of many diseases can be direct or indirect. Community transmission of this disease starts when the disease is contracted from the community and the virus has spread so much that the source is untraceable.

 

Transmission dynamics:

 

Transmission is the result of interacting host and pathogen processes, encapsulated with the environment in a ‘transmission triangle’. The dynamics of any infectious disease are heavily dependent on the rate of transmission from infectious to susceptible hosts.

 

Transmit:

 

often passive: cause a disease to pass from animal to human or from human to human – Many diseases are transmitted through physical contact.

 

Vaccine:

 

It triggers the immune system to help it build immunity to a disease. Attempt to produce a vaccine for combating coronavirus attack has been taken by many countries of the world. It is opined that without proper vaccination, the attack of coronavirus cannot be wound off.

 

Ventilator:

 

A ventilator is a machine that helps a patient breathe. It pumps oxygen into the lungs and removes carbon dioxide through a tube. In medicine, ventilate can refer to oxygenating the blood (i.e., supplying it with oxygen) or helping someone breathe using a mechanical ventilator. Because COVID-19 is a respiratory disease, it can cause lung inflammation, which makes it hard for patients to breathe. That’s why ventilators are necessary to help treat some patients with the infection, depending on the severity of their symptoms. Ventilators take over the body’s breathing process when disease has caused the lugs to fail. This allows the patient time to fight over the infection and thereby  recover. There are many types of ventilators, like CPAP ventilators, non invasive ventilators etc. Ventilators are sometimes referred to as respirators. However, ventilators technically refer to machines that help patients breathe, not the protective respirators nurses and doctors wear.

 

Vira:

 

describing something like, caused by, or relating to a virus or viruses – Antibiotics cannot be used to treat viral infections because they don’t kill viruses, only bacteria.

 

Viral load:

 

Viral load is the amount of a virus in a sample, especially a person’s blood or other bodily fluids, especially blood plasma. Viral load is typically measured as the number of virus particles per milliliter. The term viral load is also known as viral burden.

 

Virus:

 

A living thing, too small to be seen without a microscope, that causes infectious disease in animals and humans. A virus is the smallest of all the microbes. They are unique because they are only alive organisms, who are able to multiply inside the cells of other living things. A virus is made up of a core of genetic material , either DNA or RNA , surrounded by a protective coat called a capsid which is made up of a protein. Sometimes the capsid is surrounded by an additional spikey coat called the envelope. There are many types of viruses. Coronavirus are a large family of viruses that cause illness ranging from common cold to severe diseases like MERS-COV and SARS-COV. Coronavirus is any virus belonging to the family Coronaviridae. The virus particles of Coronavirus  measure approximately 120nm in diameter.

 

Washing your hands:

 

Washing one’s  hands with soap for at least 20 seconds is one important thing to do to help prevent the spread, or mitigate, COVID-19. The technique of washing hands is important. First you have to clean your hands regularly. Then wash your hands with soap and water, and dry them thoroughly , and then use alcohol based handrub , or soap and water.

 

Wet market:

 

A marketplace selling fresh meat, fish, produce, and other perishable goods as distinguished from “dry markets” that sell durable goods such as fabric and electronics. Water is slashed on produce to keep it cool and fresh. These are called “wet” to differentiate them from markets selling dry packaged goods, such as noodles. Because of the public health crisis wet markets cause, many countries are urging the United Nations to ban all wet markets. Not only do these markets pose an immediate danger to humans, but they are also intensely cruel and very inhumane to animals.

 

WHO:

 

WHO stands for the World Health Organization, a United Nations agency based in Geneva, Switzerland. According to the WHO, its main role is to direct and coordinate international health within the United Nations system. Their  main areas of work are health systems; health through the life-course; vigilance and awareness to people over non communicable and communicable diseases; preparedness, surveillance and response; and corporate services.

 

Zoonotic:

 

Zoonotic means “relating to any disease of animals communicable to humans.” The  noun form is zoonosis. The source of COVID-19 is believed to be an animal, which makes it a zoonotic disease.

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